Binary Dinosaurs Computer Museum
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Exidy, Inc
I remember Exidy as being an arcade machine manufacturer that made 2 of my favourite games from the late 1970s, 'crash' and 'bandido'. With the former you had to avoid the computer controlled car that drove at you in the opposing direction while you picked up the dots on the screen...hmm....remind you of pacman? The latter was a fantastic game with an 8-way firing joystick as well as an 8-way moving joystick where you played a sheriff and had to rescue your love from mexican bandits.
The original Sorcerer dates from 1978 and has novel features that lifted it up and away from the likes of the Tandy TRS80 Model 1 such as a user-defineable character set and a handy thing to have at the time - an S100 bus interface. It was also arguably the first home computer to feature language ROMs in cartridge cases, in the case of the Sorcerer these were 8-track cartridge cases that had been gutted and replaced with CBASIC ROMs on dedicated circuit boards. For the younger audience a quick google will tell you about 8-track carts :o)
Mono video as standard, but the screen memory was split between ROM and RAM allowing a user defined character set with a maximum resolution of 512x240, obviously this was a 'fake' resolution since the programmer could only redefine the 8x8 character cell for each letter, similar to the CBM PET and other machines of the day.
The S100 bus was important because it was one of the first attempts at an industry 'standard' for expansion cards for personal computers. Originally it came from the IMSAI and Altair home computers and was basically 100 electric connections for addressing, data and power that allowed you do expand your machine with memory cards, disk controllers, video controllers etc. What was bad about it was that various manufacturers had produced their own interpretations of the S100 bus so things weren't as compatible as they should have been.
The Sorcerer had a massive Australian push from it's primary electronics distributor, Dick Smith (who for once didn't appear to rebadge the machine as one of their own, see the VideoGenie and Texet TX8000) and a big push in Europe from Compudata in Holland who continued to make the machine under licence even after Exidy imploded in the early 1980s.
This machine, donated by Brendan Breen, has been tricked out quite impressively. As well as button-selective baud rates for saving to cassette there's expanded memory and a pair of colour circuits from Stuart Micrographics that I've yet to find information on. There's a stack of useful documentation as well as loads of ESCape magazines from the European Sorcerer Club. Best of all, it still works :o)
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2018 Update
With the 2nd Retro Weekend coming up at the Centre For Computing History in Cambridge I decided it was time to dig out the Sorcerer again. As I wrote back in 2006 'it still works'. Well, will it still? Answer - nearly. After checking voltages from the linear AC lump of a PSU I powered up and was greeted with random flickering garbage on screen. Better than nothing I suppose. Checking the 5V rail it fluctuated between 4.4 and 4.2v which was far too low. Strangely for a machine like this there's a great big 8000uF capacitor right across the 5V rail and sure enough it tested as dead. Finding a similar replacement proved to be difficult so I got a slightly smaller form factor 10kuF and soldered it in place. Result! A 'Supervisor' prompt. This appears to be a monitor nobody knows about.
Nothing much after that though. The BASIC cart didn't do anything and the display flickered. The usual Sorcerer monitor ROM has a TEst command built in for checking RAM and this threw up a lot of errors. Was the RAM bad or was the BASIC ROMPAC bad? Checking the memory map the BASIC ROMs live between 0xC000 and 0xDFFF so using the DUmp command I could see ROM contents right up to 0xDF00 where things went a bit awry. 0xDF00 is in ROM 4 (0xD801 - 0xDFFF) so I burnt a new 2716 EPROM using an image from Dave Williams' Trailing Edge site and pondered how to alter the cartridge so I could put pin 21 at 5V since the original PROM and replacement EPROM had a slightly different pinout. Exidy provided cuttable traces to allow this but I didn't want to damage the board so took a 5V feed to a bent out pin 21 using the remains of a leg from a capacitor.
Still no BASIC from the Sorcerer though. RAM tests were still failing too. As a precaution I burnt new 2716 EPROMs with the stock Sorcerer Monitor just to make sure the replacement one in the machine wasn't corrupt. No difference so over to RAM. Rather than check all 32 piggybacked chips I replaced all of them with 16 NOS spares. Result! The screen tearing had gone and I could get BASIC running. This meant the only thing I could do was replace the piggybacked chips one by one until I found a fault. Bank 1 bit 1 was the first and only failure. Thankfully the sellers of the original upgrade kit had provided spares ready made so it was an easy job to solder a new pair into place.
All that was left after that was to clean up the S100 box, clean the edge connector of the disk controller within and check voltages from yet another linear PSU. At first powerup the Sorcerer changed RAMTOP to 0xBBFF which is just below the start address of the disk controller - 0xBC00. DUmping 0xBC00 to 0xBCFF showed recognisable data which was encouraging. After cleaning the heads of the Micropolis drives I fed drive 0 a boot disk and.... it booted :D It booted to Micropolis MDOS though which is an OS I'd not heard of until then. CP/M was more friendly and allowed a mandatory game of Space Invaders.
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All images and text © Adrian Graham 1999-2018 unless otherwise noted using words. Also on